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Month: March 2022

Adding Domain Aliases in iRedMail: A Simple bash script

iRedMail is a powerful and open-source mail server solution that simplifies the process of setting up and managing email services. It supports popular email protocols, including IMAP, POP3, and SMTP, and can be used to host multiple email domains. In this guide, we’ll explore how to add domain aliases to iRedMail’s free version with a MySQL backend.

What Are Domain Aliases?
Domain aliases are additional domain names that point to an existing email domain. For example, if you have a primary domain like example.com, you can set up domain aliases like domain.ltd so that emails sent to username@domain.ltd are delivered to the corresponding mailbox of username@example.com. Domain aliases are a convenient way to manage multiple email addresses under a single domain.

The Bash Script:
Here’s a Bash script that simplifies the process of adding domain aliases in iRedMail. You can use this script to automate the task:


# Author: 	Abdul Wahab
# Website: 	Linuxwebhostingsupport.in
# Print purpose and note
printf "Purpose: Add an alias domain in iRedMail. \n\n"
printf "Note: Let's say you have a mail domain example.com hosted on your iRedMail server, if you add domain name domain.ltd as an alias domain of example.com, all emails sent to username@domain.ltd will be delivered to user username@example.com's mailbox. So here domain.ltd is the alias domain and example.com is the traget domain \n\n"

# Prompt the user to enter the alias domain name
read -p "Enter the alias domain name: " ALIAS_DOMAIN

# Prompt the user to enter the target domain name
read -p "Enter the target domain name: " TARGET_DOMAIN

# Connect to the vmail database and check if the target domain exists in the domain table
RESULT=`mysql vmail -N -B -e "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM domain WHERE domain='$TARGET_DOMAIN'"`
if [ $RESULT -ne 1 ]
  echo "Error: The target domain $TARGET_DOMAIN does not exist in the domain table. You need to add the target domain first"
  exit 1

# Insert the alias domain record
mysql vmail <<EOF
INSERT INTO alias_domain (alias_domain, target_domain)

# Print completion message
echo "Alias domain $ALIAS_DOMAIN has been added for $TARGET_DOMAIN."

How to Use the Script:

Copy the provided Bash script into a text file, e.g., add_domain_alias.sh.
Make the script executable by running the following command:

chmod +x add_domain_alias.sh

Execute the script by running ./add_domain_alias.sh in your terminal.
Follow the prompts to enter the alias domain and target domain names.
The script will connect to the MySQL database and insert the alias domain record.

Adding domain aliases in iRedMail is a straightforward process, and the provided Bash script can simplify it even further. With domain aliases, you can efficiently manage multiple email addresses under a single domain, enhancing your email hosting capabilities.

Feel free to use this script to streamline your iRedMail email domain management, making it easier to accommodate various email addresses and domains.

Understanding the Difference: Continuous Delivery vs. Continuous Deployment in Software Development


In today’s fast-paced and ever-changing world, businesses need to be able to deliver new products and services quickly and reliably. This is where DevOps and CI/CD practices come in.

DevOps is a set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high quality. CI/CD, or continuous integration/continuous delivery, is a set of practices that automates the software development process, from building and testing to deploying to production.

Continuous delivery and continuous deployment are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing. Understanding the difference between these two approaches is essential for organizations looking to optimize their software delivery pipelines. In this blog post, we will explore the distinctions between continuous delivery and continuous deployment, providing clear definitions and examples of when each approach might be appropriate.

By the end of this article, you’ll have a solid understanding of continuous delivery and continuous deployment and be able to make informed decisions about which approach aligns best with your project’s requirements. So, let’s dive in and demystify the difference between these two critical aspects of modern software development practices.

What is continuous delivery?

Continuous delivery is a software development approach that focuses on ensuring that code changes can be reliably and efficiently delivered to production environments. It is characterized by a series of well-defined steps that enable frequent and automated deployments while maintaining high quality and minimizing risks.

The key steps involved in continuous delivery include:

1. Automated builds and tests: Continuous delivery relies on automated processes to build the application and run comprehensive tests, including unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests. These automated tests help ensure that changes to the codebase do not introduce regressions or break existing functionality.

2. Code integration and version control: Continuous delivery emphasizes the use of version control systems, such as Git, to manage code changes. Developers regularly integrate their code changes into a shared repository, enabling collaboration and reducing conflicts.

3. Continuous integration: Continuous integration involves automatically merging code changes from multiple developers into a central repository, triggering build and test processes. This ensures that the application remains in a continuously deployable state and helps identify and resolve integration issues early on.

4. Continuous testing and quality assurance: Continuous delivery places a strong emphasis on testing throughout the development process. Automated testing is performed at various stages, including unit testing, integration testing, performance testing, and security testing. By continuously testing the application, teams can identify and address issues promptly.

5. Packaging and deployment readiness: In continuous delivery, software artifacts are packaged in a consistent and reproducible manner, including all necessary dependencies. These artifacts are then prepared for deployment to various environments, such as staging or production. By automating the packaging and deployment processes, teams can ensure consistency and reduce the risk of errors during deployment.

To better understand continuous delivery, let’s consider an example. Imagine a large-scale enterprise application with a development team spread across different locations. With continuous delivery, developers can work on their respective features independently. Once the code changes are committed and integrated, the automated build and test processes kick in, ensuring that the changes are validated and do not introduce any critical issues. The application is packaged and made ready for deployment in a consistent manner. Deployment to staging or production environments can then be triggered with confidence, knowing that the application has undergone thorough testing and is in a deployable state.

Continuous delivery provides organizations with a systematic and reliable approach to software delivery, enabling faster release cycles and reducing the risk of human error. However, it’s important to note that continuous delivery does not necessarily mean that every code change is automatically deployed to production. This distinction brings us to the next section, where we explore continuous deployment.

What is continuous deployment?

Continuous deployment is an extension of continuous delivery that takes the automation and frequency of deployments to the next level. With continuous deployment, every code change that passes the necessary tests and quality checks is automatically deployed to production environments, making it immediately available to users.

The main characteristics of continuous deployment include:

1. Automation: Continuous deployment heavily relies on automation throughout the software delivery process. Automated build, test, and deployment pipelines ensure that code changes are seamlessly deployed to production environments without manual intervention. This automation minimizes the potential for human error and speeds up the delivery cycle.

2. Frequency of deployments: Continuous deployment enables organizations to deploy code changes frequently, sometimes multiple times a day. By automating the entire deployment process, organizations can push updates to production as soon as they are ready, delivering new features, bug fixes, and improvements to end-users rapidly.

3. While continuous delivery stops at preparing the application for deployment, continuous deployment goes a step further by automatically deploying the changes to production environments after passing all necessary tests and quality checks.

4. To better understand continuous deployment, let’s consider an example. Imagine a web application developed by a startup company. With continuous deployment, developers can work on new features or bug fixes and have their changes automatically deployed to the production environment once the necessary tests have passed. This enables the startup to iterate and release new updates rapidly, gaining valuable user feedback and addressing issues promptly.

5. Continuous deployment is particularly beneficial for web-based applications, where rapid release cycles and immediate user feedback are crucial for success. It allows organizations to continuously evolve their software, respond quickly to market demands, and deliver an exceptional user experience.

It’s important to note that continuous deployment may not be suitable for all organizations or projects. Factors such as the scale of the application, risk tolerance, and the need for manual approvals or compliance requirements may influence the decision to adopt continuous deployment.

Differences between continuous delivery and continuous deployment:

While continuous delivery and continuous deployment are closely related, there are distinct differences between the two approaches. Let’s delve into these differences by examining key aspects such as automation, testing, and deployment.

1. Automation: Both continuous delivery and continuous deployment rely on automation to streamline the software delivery process. However, the level of automation differs. In continuous delivery, automation is focused on building, testing, and packaging the application, ensuring that it is ready for deployment. Continuous deployment takes automation a step further by automatically deploying code changes to production environments without manual intervention.

2. Testing: Continuous delivery emphasizes thorough testing at various stages of the software delivery pipeline. This includes unit testing, integration testing, and end-to-end testing to validate the application’s functionality and performance. Continuous deployment also incorporates comprehensive testing, but since deployments occur more frequently and automatically, there is an increased reliance on automated tests to ensure the stability and quality of the application.

3. Deployment: Continuous delivery prepares the application for deployment in a controlled and reproducible manner. However, the actual deployment to production environments is typically triggered manually, allowing teams to perform additional checks or obtain necessary approvals before release. On the other hand, continuous deployment automatically deploys code changes to production once they have passed all the required tests and quality checks, enabling rapid and frequent releases.

To illustrate the differences, let’s consider the previous examples. In the case of the large-scale enterprise application, continuous delivery ensures that code changes are thoroughly tested and packaged, ready for deployment. However, deployment to production may require manual intervention, allowing the organization to perform additional validations or meet compliance requirements. On the other hand, in the case of the web application developed by the startup, continuous deployment automates the entire deployment process, pushing code changes to production as soon as they pass the necessary tests. This enables rapid iteration and frequent releases, without the need for manual intervention.

It’s important to note that while continuous deployment offers the advantage of immediate updates and faster feedback loops, it also requires robust automated testing, monitoring, and rollback mechanisms to ensure the stability and reliability of the production environment. Organizations adopting continuous deployment must have a high level of confidence in their testing and deployment processes to minimize the risk of introducing bugs or issues into the live application.

Choosing between continuous delivery and continuous deployment

The choice between continuous delivery and continuous deployment depends on various factors, including the organization’s goals, the nature of the application, the level of risk tolerance, and compliance requirements. Here are some considerations to help guide your decision:

  • Release frequency: If your organization aims for rapid and frequent releases to quickly deliver new features or updates to users, continuous deployment provides the advantage of automating the deployment process and reducing time-to-market.
  • Risk tolerance: If your application has strict compliance requirements, necessitating manual approvals or additional validation steps before deploying to production, continuous delivery allows for greater control and ensures that the appropriate checks are in place before releasing changes.
  • Testing and quality assurance: Continuous delivery emphasizes comprehensive testing and quality assurance processes. If you have a complex application or require extensive testing to ensure stability and functionality, continuous delivery allows for thorough testing and review before deploying changes.
  • Team collaboration: Continuous delivery promotes collaboration and encourages developers to integrate their code changes frequently. This ensures that conflicts are identified and resolved early on. If your organization values close collaboration between team members, continuous delivery can be an effective choice.
  • Application scale and complexity: Consider the size and complexity of your application. For large-scale applications with multiple components and dependencies, continuous delivery provides an opportunity to ensure that all aspects of the application are properly tested and integrated before deploying to production.

    When to use Continuous Delivery

    Continuous delivery is a good choice for teams that want to improve the speed and quality of their software delivery. It is also a good choice for teams that want to be able to deploy changes to production quickly and easily.

    Here are some examples of when continuous delivery might be a good choice:

  • A software company that wants to deliver new features to its customers on a monthly or even weekly basis.
  • A website that wants to deploy bug fixes and security updates as soon as they are available.
  • A mobile app that wants to deploy new features and bug fixes to its users as soon as they are available.

    When to use Continuous Deployment

    Continuous deployment is a good choice for teams that want to automate their software delivery process as much as possible. It is also a good choice for teams that want to be able to deploy changes to production automatically.

    Here are some examples of when continuous deployment might be a good choice:

  • A software company that is releasing new software on a continuous basis.
  • A website that is constantly being updated with new content.
  • A mobile app that is constantly being updated with new features.

    It’s worth noting that continuous delivery and continuous deployment are not mutually exclusive. Organizations can start with continuous delivery and, as they mature in their automation and testing processes, gradually transition to continuous deployment when it aligns with their goals and capabilities.


    Continuous delivery and continuous deployment are two approaches that enhance software delivery by automating processes and ensuring frequent, reliable releases. Continuous delivery focuses on preparing code changes for deployment, while continuous deployment takes automation a step further by automatically deploying changes to production environments.

    Understanding the differences between continuous delivery and continuous deployment is crucial for organizations seeking to optimize their software delivery pipelines. By considering factors such as release frequency, risk tolerance, testing requirements, and team collaboration, organizations can make informed decisions about which approach aligns best with their specific needs and goals.

    Ultimately, whether you choose continuous delivery or continuous deployment, embracing DevOps practices and automation can significantly improve your software development processes, enabling faster delivery, higher quality, and increased customer satisfaction.

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